Everything is subordinated to this desire. Various forms of dependence are described in the fields of psychology and the psychiatric profession. Substance-related disorders are illnesses due to the use of a certain substance, such as alcohol, tobacco, medication and illegal drugs. Substance-unrelated disorders refer to certain behaviours that are engaged in to an excessive, addictive degree, such as gambling, PC/internet use, eating disorders, shopping addiction and sex addiction.
Symptoms of addiction:
  • Strong desire for certain substances ( known as craving).
  • Reduced control over the consumption in terms of consumption style and quantity.
  • Development of tolerance resulting in an increase of dosage
  • Occurrence of physical withdrawal symptoms
  • Restricted behaviour pattern
  • Denial of addiction
  • Neglect of family, friends, job and interests
  • Neglecting other aspects of life for the sake of addiction
  • Continued use despite obvious consequential damage (physical, psychological and/or social)

One speaks of dependence when at least three of the above criteria occur in an individual over a period of one year.


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Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Centre in Hanover

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